Frankenstein marks the establishment of a tradition of disenchanted, secular fantasies, becoming increasingly grotesque and horrific. It is haunted by a loss of absolute meaning, repeating a desire for knowledge and for ultimate truth, but it deflates and deforms this desire through the travestying form of the monster itself, a grotesque parody of the human longing for the more than human. … Mary Shelley’s novel reverses and denies the Romantic quest for gnosis. A vast gap is opened up between knowledge (as scientific investigation and rational inquiry) and gnosis (a knowledge of ultimate truths, a kind of spiritual wisdom), and it is in this gap that the modern fantastic is situated. In Frankenstein the ‘other’ who is created by the self is no supernatural or superhuman being, but an amalgam of bodily shreds and patches, a collection of mortal remains, the disjecta membra of a dead society raised up again as the living dead. Self as other is recorded here as a grotesque, unredemptive metamorphosis, as mere travesty, parody, horror.
-Rosemary Jackson, Fantasy: The Literature of Subversion